|Title of Practice:
AN ENABLING PROJECT FOR IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF THE DISADVANTAGED GROUPS IN A SQUATTER HOUSING (GECEKONDU) NEIGHBOURHOOD IN MAMAK, ANKARA.
|City / Town / Village:
||Europe & Former Soviet Union States
|Has this practice been submitted previously?
||Bayan Sirin Dönmez (Ms. Sirin Dönmez, the neighbourhood
administrator- elected MUHTAR )
49. Sokak, Pazar yeri, Zabita Noktasi Uzeri,
Ankara - Turkey.
Phone: ++ -90-312- 390 50 05
|Name of Contact Person:
|| Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sibel Kalaycioglu; Ms. Semiha Oncel
|Email of Contact Person:
When the initiative has been started in 1997 May by the Ankara Universal Values Caucus, the major purpose was directed to the training of women and men in civic rights. The area chosen for this practice is Aksemsettin, a neighborhood in Mamak district, because it is one of the low standard housing areas in Ankara. Low-income migrant families live there. It is located close to a waste disposal area and thus has to cope with environmental pollution. It does not attract any private investors also.
To determine the needs of the neighborhood a series of talks/conferences and a preliminary questionnaire were conducted. The conferences were related to issues of women’s health, children’s training,civil rights, legal rights and the functions of some governmental organizations and the municipality. Through these talks the necessity for a sociological research to assess the needs in the neighborhood was agreed upon. The findings showed that there was an increasing demand for women’s paid employment; the youth expressed a strong desire to enter university and demanded university preparation lessons (the private sector offers these kind of lessons for very high prices); further on the need to improve health facilities was expressed openly; and the need for a library for the children and youngster of the neighborhood was mentioned.. This led into the practice.
To answer these demands, possibilities for income generation for women were searched and finally the Korler Vakfi (Foundation for the Blind) provided 10 machines for knitting socks. The course for knitting socks was started in the building allocated by the Mamak Municipality. Also, university preparation lessons were started, a small library was established, and meetings and talks with women and youngsters were undertaken in this center. Thus, this building served multiple purposes (i.e.: training, production, meeting place, library,music courses and the office of the neighborhood administrator). Also a health center was opened by the Mamak Municipality, with two doctors after combined efforts of the neighborhood administrator and the Caucus.
After the practice, women became more assertive and learned how and to where they can inquire about, for example electricity and water cuts and sanitation problems. Two young boys and a girl who attended the preparation lessons entered university. After completing the knitting course two women bought machines for knitting socks and started to sell their products in the neighborhood. One girl, sole earner in the family was given a machine for knitting sweaters to guarantee the survival of the family. A small library is used by the school children. The neighborhood administrator entered the demographic data of all households living in the neighborhood in a PC, easing the bureaucratic procedures dramatically. The health center is effectively used and people stopped going to hospitals for minor problems. Vaccinations, child diseases and gynecological problems, which constitute the main health problems, find now medical treatment on a local/neighborhood-level.
For the project a total budget of 41.000 $ was calculated. However it was impossible to find this financial support. So the support found through contacts was all donations in kind, like e.g., wool, furniture, books, etc. The material resources, i.e. the knitting machines were again given as a donation by the Korler Vakfi (Foundation for the Blind). The building was allocated by Mamak Municipality. Bilkent University provided the carpets and curtains and furniture. Provincial Governor of Mamak assigned the teachers.Sociology Department of Middle East Technical University together with the Association of Sociologists organized the university exam preparation lessons.
||April 1997: The first meeting in the house of Mahsune Ozdemir, with the neighbours and the neighbourhood administrator.
23 November 1997: The first talk organized with the women in one of the houses, introducing the Caucus, Habitat II and the universal values and discussing the program.
12 January 1998 : The meeting of the Caucus members in the Foundation for the Blind to discuss the possibility of getting unused knitting machines and assembling them into the building in the neighbourhood.
24 May 1998: The opening of the training and production center in the Aksemsettin neighbourhood. The machines for knitting socks were brought to the center and a ceremony including all the contributors to the establishment of the center, the women, who will be the first course students, and the people of the neighbourhood, was organized. The people cooked traditional pastry and supplied drinks for the guests.
11 October 1998: The Caucus organized a festival in the neighbourhood with the slogan of “lets own our neighbourhood”, in the neighbourhood park called Demokrasi Parki (Park of Democracy). Since 29th of October is the day of foundation of the Turkish Republic, a plaquette for the commemoration of the establishment of Turkish Republic is given to the Ex- President of the Court of Constitution. Also the health center is opened that day. In the festival the people of the neighbourhood played their own folk music and folklore, folk poems were read and the traditional pudding made with sugar, raisins and cereals was given to all guests.
|Norminating Organization Details
|Name of Organization:
||Dr. Ismail Degerli (Ex-Mayor of The Municipality of Mamak district) Mamak Belediyesi (Municipality of Mamak )
||Dr. Ismail Degerli
|Type of Organization:
|Turkiye Korler Vakfi ( Foundation for the Blind ):||Fevzi Cakmak Sokak 14/3 |
|Dr. Lutfi Dogan , not provided||Non-Governmental Organisation||Financial Support
|Mamak Belediyesi (Municipality of Mamak )||Belediye Baskanlik Binasi, |
|Dr. Ismail Degerli, not provided||Local Authority||Financial Support, Political Support
|Mamak Kaymakamlığı (Provincial Governor of the Mamak District)|| Kaymakamlik Binasi,|
|Hasan Tulay, not provided||Local Authority||Financial Support, Technical Support
|Is ve Isci Bulma Kurumu (Department of Work and Employment) ||Sihhiye, Ankara.|
|Nuh Eraslan, not provided||Central Government||Financial Support, Technical Support
|Middle East Technical University, Department of Sociology || Inonu Bulvari, |
|Dr. Sibel Kalaycioglu, not provided||Academic/Research||Technical Support
|Health Center of the Bilkent University and Bilkent University Governors’ Board ||Bilkent University|
|not provided, not provided||Academic/Research||Financial Support
| Yurt - Kur (Department of University Students’ Dormitories and Credits)|| Kizilay |
Phone: ++-90-312- 435 6051
Fax: ++-90-312- 4358245
| Inci Tengirsek, not provided||Central Government||Financial Support
|Olgu Muhendislik (an engineering firm)||Mesrutiyet Caddesi, 59/4|
|not provided, not provided||Private Sector||Financial Support
|Mamak Muhtari (Neighbourhood Administrator):|| 49. Sokak, Pazar Yeri,|
Zabita Noktasi Uzeri,
| Sirin Donmez, not provided||Local Authority||Technical Support, Administrative Support
|Sosyoloji Dernegi (Association of Turkish Sociologists):||Fevzi Cakmak Caddesi,|
| Dr. Helga Rittersberger-Tilic, not provided||Non-Governmental Organisation||Technical Support
Civic Engagement and Cultural Vitality
Gender Equality and Social Inclusion
Situation Before the Initiative Began
It is a low standard housing area (however with running water, sewage system and electricity) at the outskirts of Ankara. Mainly migrants originating from Central Anatolian villages do live there. Most are engaged in low-level governmental or informal sector jobs. Unemployment is relatively high; women and youth are especially in need to find a way of income generation and opportunities for further education. The women mostly passive in participating into public life and dealing with the authorities. There was a high amount of complain directed to the public authorities about the irregularity of the infrastructural services but no initiative was taken by the people living in the neighborhood, to solve problems. Access to health services was very difficult. Also the people complained about the waste disposal area close-by which was effecting their health negatively.
Establishment of Priorities
Through talks with women and the neighborhood administrator, and meeting with the Ex-Mayor of Mamak Municipality, Aksemsettin neighborhood was selected as the one most in need of help. Then sociology students conducted interviews in 150 households, asking people about their needs, demands and possible solutions.Also in some houses discussion groups of women were organized. The women said that if there was a workshop in their close environment they will be willing to work. Their employable skills were found to be knitting and weaving carpets.The young people wanted to continue with university education but said that their families can not afford to send them to expensive preparation courses. So they had no hope for continuing education. Also the health problems were experienced to a great extent but either the hospitals were far away or most people who were unemployed or the ones who worked in the informal sector did not have any social insurance and thus cannot have access to any health services.
The first two priorities then were decided as creating income generating activities for women and to start preparation lessons for the second and third year lycee students. For the women the best choice seemed to establish a workplace in the neighborhood where women can weave carpets. For the preparation lessons to find volunteering university students appeared to be a most appropriate choice. Also for the health center contacts would be started with the Ministry of Health and Mamak Municipality.
Also achievement of civic awareness and engagement into public life and becoming active participants in bringing solutions to problems was an equally important priority.
For this purpose a list of experts (lawyers, doctors, academicians) were contacted to give conferences to women.
Formulation of Objectives and Strategies
To fulfill the major aims of Habitat II, the improvement of quality of life was aimed through developing opportunities for income generation for women and through increasing the opportunities of the youth to enter further education.Also through various conferences related to the issues of women’s health,children’s training, civil rights, legal rights and the inner working of some governmental organizations and municipality, a socially and politically conscious profile of a women who knows her rights and how to inquire about them was demonstrated. Through festivals organized in the neighborhood where people practiced their own folkloric dances, music, poems and food, besides professional dance groups, a cultural integration and vitality was tried to be achieved. The long run goal of the project is to establish the economic,social and cultural empowerment,especially of the disadvantaged groups. The project intended to revitalize the neighborhood and especially make it a better place to live for the younger generations. The training courses were also aimed to motivate the young girls to vocational training especially in the textile sector and thus, to be economically independent unlike their mothers.
Mobilization of Resources
In any project it is one of the major difficulties to find financial sponsors,especially before some achievements. Therefore the coordinators of the Caucus started a series of visits to various governmental departments, Municipality,and some voluntary organizations in order to find financial support for the project. As a result most of the resources found were not in cash but in the form of donations. Since the women were asking for carpet weaving, the Caucus investigated the possibilities of a sponsor for a carpet weaving workshop, the looms and the yarn. Through the investigation it was found that the markets for carpets and rugs are rather limited and highly competitive, if it is kept on a small scale and only directed to the home market. Expanded market possibilities depended on opening to international markets and demanded a much larger financial support.
As a member organization of the Caucus the Korler Vakfi (Foundation for the Blind) suggested that 10 knitting machines for socks, which they bought for the blind but were not used since they were not suitable for the blind, could be transferred to this practice. Thus, instead of the carpet weaving the possibility of starting a course on knitting socks were discussed with the women of the neighborhood. They were enthusiastic about this alternative and the Caucus members started to look for a building. Mamak Municipality was visited together with the neighborhood administrator and the building was allocated for the practice. Similar to the knitting machines, the building was also unused in the neighborhood. So through these donations unused resources were mobilized into productive capacity. The plot around the building also became revitalized and turned into a very much needed marketplace by the Municipality. Hence, the building where the project started became a focus point in the neighborhood.
Bilkent University Health Center was contacted through an individual contributor of the Caucus for furnishings. The neighborhood administrator arranged with the Provincial Governor to obtain the course teachers and also contacted the Department of Work and Employment to assign a master teacher to assemble the machines. The Middle East Technical University Sociology Department undertook the research and the university students volunteered to give preparation lessons for university entrance exam. The individual contributors of the Caucus, mostly experts like doctors, lawyers, academicians, volunteered to give the conferences on civil rights, health etc. And, of course volunteering persons from the neighborhood provided food, cleaning up the building,provided their homes for the meetings with women. The neighborhood administrator functioned as an important coordinator and spokeswoman mediating the relations between the neighborhood and the local municipality. She also took the final responsibility to take care of the building and to look after the library.
Further contacts are established with TESK (Turkish Confederation of Artisans and Tradesmen) in order to find out if there is a possibility to find sponsorship for establishing a knitting workshop/business enterprise for some women who are eager to start a workplace in neighborhood. Also other meetings with KOSGEB (The Association for the Development of Small and Medium Size Businesses) and MEKSA (Foundation for Development of Vocational Education and Small Industry) are planned for the future.
In the project financial limitations are of course of importance. All the achievements as explained above were obtained through contributions of the volunteers in kind. However, to continue with the project’s objectives and aims and to reach to more satisfying results financial sponsorship became a necessity. Especially at present, after two years of seeing the positive sides of some vocational training, i.e., learning the knitting machines, the women are eager to own their small workplaces or to work in a medium-sized establishment which can preferably be located in the neighborhood. Thus, the women definitely want to earn some income through using their learned skills but do not want to go far from their houses and their children.
A scan be easily understood, the problems faced should be also seen in the existing socio-cultural position of women in Turkish society. It is not easy to overcome social norms and values, like e.g. “a woman’s place is her home”. When dealing with possibilities for income generation this restricts the possibilities to a large degree, thus women themselves prefer to stay at home or are more willing to do jobs which can be done at home. That includes all kinds of piecework, or producing some knitwear to sell in the neighborhood. However, such small knitting in the home does not really help their needs. Some kind of paid employment out of the home but not too far from home is their ideal. Or, a workplace arranged by women themselves in the neighborhood will help them to stand on their own feet.
The market to sell to is another problem as the Caucus has experienced in the attempts to establish carpet and rug weaving workshop. In this initiative we tried to establish small stalls in the buildings owned by the municipality or on the weekly market places. But more developed market places for women and their products could be established.
However,it seems to be necessary to concentrate especially on the younger, second generation women, who want to slip out of this frame. In comparison to their mothers they usually have better educations and professional skills and are more willing to join the labour market in an active way. Although, it remains the fact that they too find mainly jobs in the informal sector.
The type of activities we mentioned above might ameliorate the specific families situation, but they do not provide socio-economic guarantees for the future.The economic activities done by the women remain to a large part in the informal sector. Another attempt therefore was to direct the women to join into cooperation in the long run, small enterprise was also seen as an alternative,however the conditions and repayment for credits/loans from state banks are unfavorable (as was learned from other entrepreneurial experiences and the concrete example of a textile workshop in another town quarter in Ankara).
The participants in this initiative ranged from people living in the neighborhood,experts, officials, academicians, students, municipality officials,neighborhood administrator, private entrepreneurs asking for female laborers, Foundation For the Blind, Provincial Governor, mayor and the individual members and member organizations of the Caucus.
In the project all the immediate goals were achieved. Two women bought their own machines and started to earn their living by selling socks to the neighborhood. Also one young girl, given a sweater knitting machine was successful in earning a small income. Women in general started to engage in local affairs, that includes making petitions to the municipality for better provision of infrastructural services (e.g. electricity, water, health station). Relation of the neighborhood and the municipality became more intensive. One women even though she did not have children of her own, became active member of the parental board in the primary/secondary school in the neighborhood. She contacted the Caucus for the betterment of school facilities in terms of PCs.
Further demands for alternative child care as well as demand for state supported kinder gardens is openly declared. An increased awareness of environmental/health problems has started. They even organized a protest action against the authorities to remove the waste disposal area to some other place.
There is a demand for the continuation of the preparation lessons and in addition there is the demand for further courses for special skills (like sewing,artificial flowers production, etc.). Furthermore, courses on writing and reading skills are demanded.Younger ones demand courses on PC use.
The center became a meeting place for the neighborhood. The demand for further meetings increased. Great interest arose in meetings and presentations on health and citizens’ rights. Women became more aware about their position in the family and society – husbands also started to be interested with the initiative
Women are now planning to create cooperatives to guarantee future. Also complains from lack of old-age and social security benefits increased. Previously women would say “My husband has insurance so I do not need insurance on my own”. At present they claim their own.
Women started to search markets for selling their products. They ask the members of the Caucus to make a feasibility study for the possibility of a women’s cooperative and market possibilities to sell. Even international markets are thought of inspirited by the Marmara Earthquake experience.
The initiative helped to raise the awareness about the inefficiencies of the local and central authorities. Women can call the authorities without hesitation to inquire about electricity and water cuts.
The initiative was very successful in bringing together multiple partners, from the central government, local authority as well as non-governmental organizations,who made different contributions in kind to the practice. Through the project the Caucus also realized its ability to mobilize resources. This experience can be used in further initiatives of the Caucus. Partnerships are more established than before since a concrete achievement is made. Caucus now plans to make contacts at the international level, for expertise as well as for financial support. All these achievements were done without any financial contributions. However, the demand of women for a cooperative is almost impossible to be developed without some amount of initial capital. To rely on bank credits is very risky as they are rather small in size with heavy interest rates. So some international partners will be contacted in order to achieve further progress in this initiative. Actually, a contact has already been established with the Anatolian Development Foundation which can functions as mediator for international funding of small projects.
Since the project did not make use of any financial support there are no problems of paying back. However, this project cannot become sustainable unless some level of financial support can be found. The Caucus learned from the experiences of other non-governmental organizations working only with women how it led into disappointment when the women lost their workplaces due to disabilities to payback the interest rates. So bank credits are not planned but some form of low interest credits through foundations could be found. There are well established practices of small scale projects financially supported by the Anatolian Development Foundation indifferent areas of Turkey which are sustainability of the initiative.
Gender equality and equity was established to some degree. The conferences, talks,preparation lessons and the knitting courses all contributed to capacity building among the people of the neighborhood. On the other hand, for women to have positive attitudes towards work out of home, they should be free in their minds about their children’s care. For this aim establishment of nurseries with low costs to the women were demanded and some self-help mechanisms among neighborhood women for taking care of the children were discussed.
Eventually,the awareness for environmental problems increases – through conferences and meetings. The problems of pollution and dangers for human health, especially child health are discussed with the people.
The practice showed that the second generation women are more eager to work for better payments and for income generating activities. Before starting courses the employment after taking the courses must be also guaranteed to encourage.Also in any project about women men must be also incorporated into the process.
The project started only as a pilot study to initiate the improvement of life and capacity development in a neighborhood. One important lesson is that once such a project has started it increases the expectations of the people. Then, if the project can not continue for financial reasons it turns into a disadvantage to initiate further projects. Therefore, raising high expectations must be avoided. However, it was learned, that a successful practice has an important demonstrative effect for the people in the neighborhood and increases collective behaviors.
Financial support is vital but it should not carry the risk of bankrupting the poor people in the end. Non-Governmental Organizations should do a detailed feasibility study before starting a similar project. The marketing of the product is crucial in order not to disappoint people.
This project can be easily repeated elsewhere in low income neighborhoods. The experience should be introduced to the state institutions. For this purpose SHCEK Sosyal Hizmetleri ve Cocuk EsirgemeKurumu - (Society for Social Services and Child Protection, State Department) has organized a two day conference sponsored by UNICEF. During this conference some members of the Caucus informed this institution about this project and its results. This experience was accepted to be implemented in Toplum Merkezleri (Community Centers) established by this state institution.
Though it is an easily applicable project the best thing to avoid could be not focusing that much on the first generation migrant women. Second generation can be more willing to cooperate and will help the future success of the project. In Turkey the concept of NGO is rather new and mostly understood as a charity institution. However, such practices should be increased and should be supported by the state institutions. And a cooperation is needed to be achieved between NGOs, central governments and local authorities.
Ecevit, Yildiz; Erman, Tahire; Kalaycioglu, Sibel; Rittersberger-Tilic, Helga, 1999: Migrant Women’s Participation in the Labor Force in Urban Turkey (Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, Mersin) report prepared for the Worldbank (in English).
Kalaycioglu, Sibel, “Gecekondu Ailelerinde Farkli Dayanisma Aglari” (Different Solidarity Networks in Gecekondu Families), III. National Population Conference, Ankara, Turkey (forthcoming in Turkish).
Kalaycioglu, Sibel, 1999, “Migration as a Conflict Generating Process: Sources of Conflict and Patterns of Forced Consensus”, International Sociological Association, RC 28, May, Warsaw, Poland (paper presented in English).
Kalaycioglu, Sibel, 1999, “The Basis Of Cleavage And Integration Among Migrants Learning To Live Together : A Culture Of Cleavage And Integration”, 4th European Conference of Sociology, Will Europe Work?, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, August (paper presented in English).
Kalaycioglu, Sibel; Rittersberger-Tilic, 1996, Turkiye’de Hizmet Sektorunde Kadin: Ev Hizmetlerinde Calisan Kadinlar (Women in the Service Sector in Turkey: Female Domestic Waged Workers), report prepared in Turkish for the Turkish Primeministry, General Directorate of Women Status and Affairs and the World Bank.
Kalaycioglu, Sibel; Rittersberger-Tilic, Helga, 1997, “Job or Servitude: A Female View From Below”, European Sociological Association, August, University of Essex, Colcester, UK (paper presented in English).
Kalaycioglu, Sibel; Rittersberger-Tilic, 1998, “Is Iliskilerine Kadınca Bir Bakis: Ev Hizmetinde Calisan Kadinlar” (Women Working in Domestic Services: A Female Perspective on Work Relations). 75. Yilda Kadinlar ve Erkekler (75th Year, Women and Men, Istanbul: History Foundation, pp. 225-235 (in Turkish).
Rittersberger-Tilic, Helga, 1999, “Neither Villagers nor Urban Citizens but Gecekondulu”, 4th European Conference of Sociology, Will Europe Work?, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, August (paper presented in English).
Rittersberger-Tilic, Helga, 1999, “Second Generation Urban Migrants in Turkey: Are They “Modernisation Losers”, Economic, Political and Cultural Contexts of Stratification and Mobility, International Sociological Association, RC 28, Warsaw, May, Poland (paper presented in English).
Rittersberger-Tiliç, Helga, “Different Migrant Generations and Their ‘Integration’ to the City”, III. National Population Conference, December, Ankara, Turkey (forthcoming in Turkish).
In total there were 23 talks/conferences held. Here are some examples:
23rd November 1997 - The first talk organized with the women in one of the houses, introducing the Caucus, Habitat II and the universal values and discussing the program.
10th December 1997 - Women’s Health
20th December 1997 - Consumers’ Rights
10th of January 1998 - Rights As An Urban Citizen
24th of January 1998 - Legal Rights
7th February 1998 - Child Psychology
11st February 1998 - General Health
21st February 1998 - Universal Values (Modesty and Happiness)
4th March 1998 - Family Health
7th March 1998 - Local Governments
21st March 1998 - Women in the World and Turkey
25th March 1998 - Women’s Health
4th April 1998 - Psychological Problems of the University Youth
15th April 1998 - Health Problems
18-19th April 1998 - First Aid Course
2nd May 1998 - World’s Population Increase
6th May 1998 - Health
16th May 1998 - On Habitat - Improvement of Living
27th May 1998 - Health
26th September 1998 - How Did Women Benefit from the Republic?
Ankara Universal Values Caucus
The major aims of the Ankara Universal Values Caucus are:
to enhance the the value of the humanity and human values
to help the spread of values about community participation, sharing and solidarity
to support peace and integration in the community
to encourage the development of ‘informed citizenry’ who are interested in participating in the decision making process
The Ankara Universal Values Caucus recognizes the fact that through the rural-urban migration process, access to economic, social and political resources in the cities became difficult especially for the disadvantaged caucuss like women, youth and the children. Therefore, the Caucus acted mostly as mediators between the people and the authorities who control access to resources and services. Additionally, the above named project is initiated with the understanding of rehabilitation of the neighbourhood.
List of all Caucus member organizations and individual members:
Ankara Valiligi Cevre Koruma Vakfi (The Foundation for the Protection of the Environment related to the Governor’s Office of Ankara)
Ankara Halkla Iliskiler Dernegi (The Ankara Association for Public Relations)
Ataturkcu Dusunce Dernegi (The Association for Ataturk’s Thought)
Birlesmis Milletler Turk Dernegi (The Turkish Association of the United Nations)
Cagdas Yasamı Destekleme Dernegi (The Association for Supporting Modern Living)
Evrensel Kardeslik ve Bilgelik Dernegi (The Association for Universal Brotherhood and Wisdom)
Pir Sultan Abdal Kultur Dernegi (Pir Sultan Abdal Cultural Association)
Sosyoloji Dernegi (The Association of Turkish Sociologists)
Turk Sanayicileri ve Isadamları Vakfi (Foundation of Turkish Industrialists and Businessmen)
Turk Kadin Dernekleri Federasyonu (Federation of Turkish Women’s Associations)
Turkiye Korler Vakfi (Foundation for the Blind)
Individual Members and their affiliations:
Arif Ari - Turkish Anatolian News Agency
Imren Oylek - teacher
Inci Tengirsek - (Yurt - Kur - daire baskani) - Departmental Head of the Department of University Students’ Dormitories and Credits
Prof. Dr. Nurgun Ersan - Gazi University, lecturer
Dr. Jale Metindir - Gynecologist
Dr. Ulker Turksay - Head of the Health Center of Bilkent University, Ankara
Dr. Helga Rittersberger-Tilic, lecturer, Middle East Technical University, Department of Sociology
Perihan Topal - pharmacist, coordinator of the Ankara Universal Values Caucus
Semiha Oncel - retired bank official, coordinator of the Ankara Universal Values Caucus
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