SITUATION BEFORE THE INITIATIVE BEGAN
With a population of over 2 million, Surabaya had only one final disposal site. The Keputih Diposal Area accommodated the waste from 155 temporary disposal sites in Surabaya. The waste at Keputih was not approprately processed and left piling. The unbearable odor and pollution disturbed the neighboring communities and Keputih was forced to close down in 2001. This caused garbage piles at temporary disposal sites piled and at every street corner in the city. In 2004 there was about 2.610 tons of waste piling daily.
FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES
The objective of the program is to popularize alternative ways of sorting and processing waste from the bottom of the cycle, which is at the household level.
The strategy was by introducing appropriate technology and how to apply it at the household level. The program builds people’s awareness of the importance of community-based waste management (through reduce, re-use and recycling) and encourage their participation in the process. The program also builds networks and partnerships with relevant stakeholders formore collaborative action.
MOBILIZATION OF RESOURCES
Several actors were crucial for this initiative and had significant roles and contributions such as:
The Kitakyushu City provided knowledge (by sharing experiences, methods and technology), tools (for instance Takakura composting basket) and technical assistance (research assistance);
The Household Skills Training Organization (PKK, abbreviation of Pendidikan Kesejahteraan Keluarga – a local Women’s Organization) which exists in every sub-district and exclusive to women as members. By using the PKK Network, it was easy to promote the community based waste management program to the local communities;
The local NGO’s namely Bangun Pertiwi, Pusdakota, Sahabat Lingkungan, Yayasan Mitra Alam Indonesia, Tunas Hijau, Bina Lingkungan dan Tata Kelola Indonesia, Tirta Buana, and Bina Mandiri. They provide information to local communities regarding waste management and assist the local community during the implementation process as well as monitoring the progress;
The environment cadres. The cadres (1 cadre in every ten houses, now reach 6.500 cadres)-- through specific trainings—play role as information provider to the member of the community on how to manage household waste (e.g. how to use takakura basket, composting bins, etc) and keep their environment green and clean. In Jambangan district, which was under special training program conducted by Unilever, every household has a member of the family as environment cadre.
The media (Jawa Pos) and Unilever Care Foundation. Since 2005, they become partners of the municipality of Surabaya in establishing several prestigious competitions, namely Green and Clean competition and Free from Waste competition. JTV (local TV), Suara Surabaya (local radio) and Radar Surabaya (local newspaper) had also participated to support the program. JTV covered the dissemination, launching, judging, and the announcement of the competition.
Surabaya Community Based Waste Management Program started in 2004, but the research which has become the foundation of the movement started in 2002.
In 2002, government of Surabaya established a partnership with Kitakyushu City in Japan on waste management to find applicable (simple and affordable) solutions. They came with ‘Takakura basket’ (invented by Mr. Takakura from Kitakyushu), a ready-to-use composting basket for households. They were also exchanging knowledge by sending government staffs and NGO workers (PUSDAKOTA) to Kitakyushu to see how people managed their waste.
The whole program covers wide range of activities and initiatives namely the waste management awareness and education program, Green and Clean competition, Cleanest District Competition, Free from Waste Competition and Independent Waste Management initiative.
In 2004 the City started to teach people about the waste management which includes methods to sort organic and non-organic waste and to know how to make use of the waste (Reduce, Re-use, Recycle) where the composting basket is given for free. Moreover, the head of sub-districts and environtment cadres—as the front runner of environment protection and conservation—were also invited to be involved in the process.
In 2005, to motivate people and to gain a broader participant, City of Surabaya--supported by the partners--established several competitions related to community based livelihood enhancement such as ‘Cleanest District Award’, ‘Green and Clean Competition’, and ‘Free from Waste Competition’. Those were aimed to introduced the concept of ‘reward’ and ‘punishment’ on how to manage the living environement.
Green and Clean was initially held at the neighborhood group level. The main criteria are the neighborhood cleanliness (including the existance of mosquito larva in the houses). In the year 2006, due to increasing awareness of waste management, the criteria were broadened and included waste management and recycling initiatives.
There are several categories in the ‘Green and Clean’ competition;
Waste management (waste sorting, processing/composting, waste facilities and waste monitoring)
Waste recycling (creativity, artistic and economic value)
Cleanliness (street and environment cleanliness, sewage and drainage condition)
Greenery (biodiversity, icon-plantation, compost usage)
Toilet/bathroom condition: cleanliness, existence of mosquito larva, knowledge of community in dengue fever prevention
The ‘Free from Waste’ Program is somewhat similar to the ‘Green and Clean’ Competition. The Green and Clean the award will be given in May (on the anniversary of Surabaya City) whilst the ‘Free from Waste’ Award will be given on Independence Day in August. By holding two competitions in a year, there will be more incentive to sustain the effort to keep the environment cleaner.
The Green and Clean Initiative has inspired people to take part in environment conservation and manage their waste independently. And consequently it has also made Surabaya City more liveable. Some of remarkable results from this program are:
There has been a significant reduction of waste to be transported to final disposal as much as 18,6% (1,480 tons in 2007) compared with previous years before the initiative taken place (2,610 tons in 2001);
The growing awareness from people in Surabaya towards the importance of waste management. Untill now, there are already 6500 environment cadres who have the task to inform people in their neighborhood on how to manage their waste;
There are 750 neighborhood groups in Surabaya that had already applied community-based independent waste management; By composting, the community not only gain profit, but also use it as fertilizer for their own environment purposes;
More trees and other greeneries are planted in housing areas, some of which became famous such as Orchid Kampung, Adenium Kampong, Aloe Vera Kampung, etc.
In general the green spaces in Surabaya has increased from 269.29 acres in 2006 to 274.44 acres in 2007;
There are at least 15 small-medium scale business in recycle products (umbrella, bags, purse, and lampshades) under the support of UNILEVER CARE. Therefore, the communities are able to gain profit from selling non-organic waste and create new job opportunity
Strengthened social capital as a result of active involvement of members of community--including women and elderly-- in this program;
The program had arguably inspired replication in other big cities such as Jakarta and Yogyakarta;
Most of all, Surabaya City is now starting to be a better place to live (more greener, cleaner and healthier) for its citizens.
Surabaya has also recieved international awards recognizing their achievements in improving the environment:
EGA (Energy Globe Award), Austria 2005 : Water &Environment Category
Green Apple & Green Organization (London) 2007
UNESCAP (United Nation Economic and Social Commission for Asia Pacific) Award 2007 for Urban Environment Improvement
There has been a significant change in people’s (and also relevant stakeholders’) perspective and attitude towards waste management which hopefully would sustain for long time;
More efficient and effective waste management systems—which include community participation—have given benefits for the City municipality especially in reducing costs of waste trasportation and processing;
Easy-to-follow methods of reducing waste had generate good acceptance in grassroot level. Therefore it has great potential to be automatically transferred, adapted, and replicated in other adjacent neighbourhood areas even without outside assistance;
The involment of various partners in this program had successfully open an access for future collaboration in other initiatives. Jawa Pos and Unilever still uphold its support for this program in other cities. As example Unilever has supported the publication of ‘Bumi Kita’ (Our Earth) to be distributed to local communities.
There is a formal recognition of community-based waste management issues from the city municipality by issued The Local Government Regulation No.1/2006 on Surabaya Mid-Term Development Plan 2006-2010 under City Cleanliness Program as well as Green Spaces and City Landscape Program;
Inspired by the achievement of City of Surabaya, there is also support from the national legislative who is planning to formulate a policy draft on city wide waste management, which will also include the principles of reduce, re-use, recycle (3R) to be replicated and implemented in all cities in Indonesia
Community involvement is compulsory for a more sustainable waste management transformation.
The government’s role is very important not only as facilitator for changes but also formulating appropriate policies to support community participation, collaborative approaches and how to address other issues of environment in general. They also play important role in providing or opening access for appropriate tools and technologies as well as making mutual partnerships with relevant stakeholders;
The process of change (building awareness towards waste management) requires an intensive and sustained effort, therefore ‘hit and run’ programs are no longer relevant in the future.
The involvement of relevant stakeholders in the whole process are very important.
The existance of competition and awards to acknowledge the achievement in improving the living environment (such as Adipura Award and Kalpataru Award from the national government, and at the city level, the Green and Clean Award) are important to motivate local governments and communities to maintain their good work in a more sustainable way.
As explained before, the easy-to-follow methods of reducing waste had generate good acceptance in grassroot level.Therefore it has great potential to be automatically transferred, adapted, and replicated in other adjacent neighbourhood areas even without outside assistance;
Many of both domestic (such as Bekasi, Balikpapan, Tulungagung, Tegal, Yogyakarta, Denpasar) as well as foreign (Thailand, China, Phillipines and Bangladesh) experts come to Surabaya to study the process and progress in waste management.
As City of Surabaya gains a good reputation in dealing with city scale waste management in national and international level (proved by accepting several National and International Awards), then it is effortess for the city to influence other city municipalities to follow their good track. In 2007, City of Surabaya’s Green and Clean methods and program have been recommended to be replicated in other big cities in Indonesia such as Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Balikpapan and Pontianak.